The decline of the region is often attributed to the devastating emergence of the Mongols, but research on the long-term dynamics of rivers and old irrigation networks shows that the changing climate and more Dries may have been the real cause.
Research led by the British University of Lincoln reconstructed the effects of climate change and found that the decrease in river flow was a very important factor in the abandonment of these city-states, previously flourishing thanks to the waterways that flow through the region and that spawned advanced civilizations that used flood irrigation to cultivate.
"We found that Central Asia recovered rapidly after the Arab invasions due to favorable humid conditions But the prolonged drought during and after the subsequent destruction of the Mongols reduced the resilience of the population l local and prevented the reestablishment of agriculture based on irrigation "explained the researcher Mark Macklin .
The abandonment of irrigation systems coincides with a phase of erosion of the river bed between the 10th and 14th centuries, which coincided with a dry period with low flow rates, rather than coinciding with the Mongol invasion.
Studies focused on the archaeological sites and irrigation canals of the Otrar oasis, which was once a commercial center on the Silk Road and is located in present-day southern Kazakhstan.
"Our research shows that it was climate change, not Genghis Khan" he concluded.
The economic losses caused by Natural disasters and man-made claims increased by 25% in 2020 to US $ 187,000 million.
The part of the expenses borne by insurers amounted to US $ 83,000 million the fifth most expensive year for the sector since the 1970s, according to data from the Swiss reinsurer Swiss Re.
Two-thirds of this figure was not caused by very large disasters of exceptional scale but by so-called catastrophes "secondary" which according to the Swiss group will increase with climate change.
Economic losses were increased by storms, floods and hailstorms, as well as by fires. The hurricane season in the North Atlantic was also very active, although this year they affected less densely populated areas.
Without Trump, the Fed eases up a bit
The US Federal Reserve (Fed)
The US Federal Reserve formally joined a global panel of central banks working to understand and reduce the risks of climate change.
Although for a year I had been collaborating to obtain membership in the Network of Central Banks and Supervisors to Green the Financial System (NGFS, for its acronym in English) , Donald Trump's stance would have complicated any serious public engagement by the Fed.
For years, the Fed stood by as other central banks lobbied for it to use its influence and that of its researchers to regulate and mitigate the effects of the Fed. global warming. The biggest fear is that an abrupt price change in financial assets due to weather-related disasters will lead to a serious impact on the markets.